### APPSC Asst Executive Engineer Agricultural Engineering Syllabus For Paper 2

**ONLY FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING – PAPER-2**

I. Surveying and Leveling and Theodaliting: Surveying – objectives, primary divisions, classification, principles of surveying units of measurement, difference between a plan and a map. Scales – representative fraction, types of measuring scales, degree of accuracy. Linear measurements – method of measurement of pacing, chains and their constructional details, chain types, folding and unfolding of chains, measuring tapes, instruments for chain survey. Ranging – chaining on flat and sloping grounds, chain and tape correction. Chain surveying – definitions, method of booking field notes, offsets, layout of off-sets, cross staff survey, obstacles in chaining, problems on errors in chaining. Computation of areas by planimeter. Compass survey – types of traverse, meridians bearing – types, designation of bearings, fore and back bearings, calculation of included angles from bearings. Description of prismatic and surveyor compass – method of using prismatic compass, magnetic declination, determination of true bearings from magnetic bearings, running a compass traverse. Local attraction – problems on correction of local attraction. Plane table survey – accessories of plane table, basic definitions, setting of plane table, orientation, methods of plane tabling.

Leveling – basic definitions, methods of leveling, classification of direct leveling. Instruments used in leveling – dumpy level, leveling staff. Temporary adjustments of dumpy level. Bench marks. Booking the staff readings – methods of reducing levels. Leveling difficulties and errors in leveling.

Theodolite – components and temporary adjustments of a theodolite – measurement of horizontal angles by direct method, repetition and reiteration method – measurement of vertical and deflection angles. Measurement of deflection angles, magnetic bearings of line – traversing by included angles – traverse computations and volume computations.

**ii. Fluid mechanics and Open Channel Hydraulics:** Fluids – classification, properties and dimensions. Fluid pressure – measurement, manometry, classification of manometers. Fluid static force on submerged surfaces – total force on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces, center of pressure and practical applications – kinematics of fluid flow – lines of flow, general types of fluid flow, equation of continuity, flow net boundary layer theory. Dynamic of fluid flow – various forms of energy in fluid flow, frictional loss, general energy equation, Bernoulli’s theorem, Euler’s equation of motion. Practical applications of Bernoulli’s theorem. Venturi meter, Pitot tube, orifice meter. Buoyancy Floatation – meta centric height. Flow through orifices and mouthpieces – vena contracta, hydraulic coefficient and their experimental determination. Flow over weirs and notches – classification, discharge measurement thorough rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal weirs, broad crested weirs, flow through pipes – laws of head in pipes, pipes in series and compound pipes, equivalent size. Open channel hydraulics, classification of open channels and definitions, most economical sections of regular cross sections, specific energy concepts – Critical depth, energy diagrams, velocity and pressure profiles in open channels, hydraulic jump – types.

**iii. Soil Mechanics:** Soil mechanics – definitions and relationships, Classification of soils – particle size distribution, sieve analysis, sedimentation analysis, stokes law. Consistency of soils – determination of liquid, plastic and shrinkage limits. Permeability – Darcy’s law, discharge velocity and seepage velocity, coefficient of permeability. Seepage of Soils – flownet properties and uses. Elasticity applied to soils – stress distribution, Bousinesq’s stress distribution theory, Isobar and pressure bulb, Verticle Pressure under uniformly loaded rectangular area, Comparison of Bousinesq’s theory with linear theory, Westergard’s theory. New mark’s influence chart, consolidation – process of consolidation relationship between void ratio and pressure, coefficient of volume change, time factor, settlement of soil. Compaction – introduction, factors. Shear strength – definition, Mohr,s circle, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, measurement of shear strength. Earth pressure – active and passive earth pressure, Rankine’s theory, slip circle method, Coulomb’s wedge theory. Design requirements of retaining wall. Stability of slopes – types of failure and remedial measures. Bearing capacity – Rankine’s analysis, Terzaghi’s analysis, general and local shear failure, plate load test.

**iv. Electronics:** Photoelectricity – photoelectric emission, laws of photoelectric emission, phototube and photo multiplier tube. Thermo electricity – Seebeek effect, Peltier effect, variation of e.m.f. with temperature, laws of thermo electricity, thermo couple, thermometer. Alternating currents – average value, r.m.s. value of A.C. circuits with resistance, inductance and capacitance, L.C.R. circuits resonance circuits, watt meter, A.C. frequency measurement, transformers. Electronics – types of emission, methods of heating, vacuum tubes, diode, space charge, diode characteristics, Child’s law of diode, rectifiers, half wave and full wave rectifiers, filter circuit types. Triode – action of grid, triode characteristics, tube constants, inter electrode capacitance, multi-electrode tubes, triode as an amplifier, classification of amplifiers. Metals semi conductors and insulators – N type, P type, germanium, P N junction diodes, junction triode transistors NPN and PNP.

**v. Fundamentals of soil science:** Nature and properties of soil – soil genesis and classification. Soil clay and organic matter. Physical and chemical properties of soils. Soil fertility and its evaluation. Soil water relations. Acidic, saline and alkali soils and their management.

Determinations of the followings: Total soluble salts by EL method, available nitrozens, available P.K. chlorides by mohars method, sulphates, calcium, (ca + mg), sodium, potassium, computation of SAR, RSC.

**vi. Strength of materials:** Introduction – units and dimensions – simple stresses and strains, elastic limit, compressive stress, tensile stress, principle of super position, stresses in bars of uniform tapering circular section, stresses in composite bars, elastic constants, primary secondary strains, poissions’s ratio, volumetric strain, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and their relationships. Principal stresses and strains – analytical and graphical methods. Strain energy and impact loading – strain energy stored in a body gradually applied, suddenly impact, shock load, proof resilience. Shear force and bending moment of beams – cantilever, over handing, simply supported, application of point load, uniformly distributed load. Bending stresses in beams – theory of simple bending, neutral axis, moment of resistance, section modulus, bending stress in unsymmetrical sections. Shearing stresses in beams – loaded beam, distribution of shear stresses, different sections. Deflection of simple beams – relation between slope, deflection andradium of curvature. Methods of determination of slope and deflection and radius of curvature. Methods for determination of slope and deflection – double integration. Macaulay’s method.

**vii. Soil Physics:** Dynamic properties of soils – bulk density, particle density, porosi

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