BOTANY INTRODUCTION: 1.1) Origin, development and scope of Botany. 1.2) Classification of plant kingdom (outlines only). 1.3) Branches of Botany: Morphology, Cytology, Embryology, Palynology, Taxonomy, Physiology, Ecology, Palaeontologist, Genetics, Phytogeography, Phycology, Mycology, Lichenology, Bryology, Pteridology,Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology. 1.4) Parts of angiospermic plant
EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY: a) Vegetative morphology: 2.1) Root: root systems, types, characteristics and functions, Modifications of roots (Storage roots, Velamen roots, Photosynthetic roots, Respiratory roots, Nodular roots and Parasitic roots ). 2.2) Stem: characteristics and functions of the stem; Modifications of stems: Aerial: Tendrils, Thorns, Hooks, Phylloclade, Tuberous stems and Bulbils. Sub-Aerial: Runners, Stolons, Suckers & Offsets, Underground: Rhizome, Corm, Stem tuber & Bulb. 2.3) Leaf: Parts of Leaf, venation, types of leaves, Phyllotaxy, Leaf modifications: -Tendrils, Spines, Scale leaves, Phyllode, Reproductive & Trap leaves (Details of Nepenthes only). b) Reproductive Morphology: 2.4) Inflorescence: Types of Inflorescence: a) Terminal, axillary and intercalary, b) Racemose, Cymose and Special Types. 2.5) Flower: Parts of flower, Structure of flower, Sex distribution, Symmetry of flower, Position of gynoecium on the thalamus. Detailed description of flower: Perianth, Calyx, Corolla, aestivation, Androecium – Parts, fixation, lengths of stamens, union of stamens, dehiscence of anther, Gynoecium – number of carpels, fusion of carpels, ovary – number of locules , placentation, Types of styles, Stigma.
REPRODUCTION IN ANGIOSPERMS: 3.1) Introduction – Sporophytic and Gametophytic stages. 3.2) Structure of Anther; Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte. 3.3) Ovule – Structure and Types; megasporogenesis – development and structure of embryo sac. 3.4) Pollination: Types of pollination – self and cross pollination, advantages of cross pollination, contrivances for cross pollination and self pollination, agents of cross pollination. 3.5) Fertilization – Process, Post – fertilization changes; Seed structure (Dicot & Monocot) and types of seed germination (epigeal, hypogeal & vivipary). 3.6) Fruits: Classification; false fruits and true fruits – Simple fruits (fleshy fruits – berry, pome, pepo, hesperidium, drupe; Dry fruits – dehiscent- legume, septicidal capsule, loculicidal capsule, septifragal capsule, Indehiscent fruits – caryopsis, cypsela, nut: schizocarpic – lomentum, schizocarp), Aggregate and Multiple fruits
PLANT TAXONOMY: 4.1) Introduction – alpha and omega taxonomy; Aspects of taxonomy – Identification – Flora, herbaria, botanical gardens (RBG – Kew, IBG – Kolkata, NBG – Lucknow), Nomenclature, ICBN, Classification – Types, Units and Brief account of Bentham & Hooker’s system Study of the following families including economic importance: 4.2) Malvaceae. 4.3) Fabaceae 4.4) Solanaceae 4.5) Liliaceae
CELL BIOLOGY: 5.1) Introduction, Techniques of Cell Biology – microscopy (light, electron, fluorescent, phase contrast, SEM, TEM – only uses). 5.2) Ultrastructure of plant cell (Eukaryotic cell – Structure of cell wall and cell membrane, Protoplasm, Cytoplasm, Plastids, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes, Vacuoles and Nucleus). 5.3) Chromosomes. 5.4) Nucleic acids. 5.5)Cell Cycle: Mitosis and Meiosis.
NTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF PLANTS: Tissues – Structure, types (Meristematic and Permanent ) and functions. 6.2) Internal structure of Dicot root (Primary) and Monocot root. 6.3) Internal structure of Dicot stem (Primary) andMonocot stem. 6.4) Internal structure of leaf (Dicot and Monocot). 6.5) Secondary growth in dicot stem.
PLANT ECOLOGY: Introduction. 7.2) Plant communities – Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes; Ecological adaptations (Morphological & Anatomical) of Hydrophytes and Xerophytes.
GENETICS: 8.1) Introduction. 8.2) Mendel’s Principles – Monohybrid cross, Dihybrid cross, Back cross, Test cross, Concept of probability in relation to Mendel’s laws. 8.3) Linkage and crossing over (only concept and significance). 8.4) Mutations – Types of Mutations and significance.
PLANT KINGDOM : 9.1) Introduction. 9.2) Spirogyra – Distribution and habitat, thallus structure, cell structure, reproduction – vegetative, asexual, sexual, life cycle. 9.3) Rhizopus – Distribution and habitat, structure of mycelium and hypha, reproduction – vegetative, asexual, sexual, life cycle, sexuality in Rhizopus. 9.4) Funaria: Distribution and habitat, external morphology of the gametophore, anatomy of the stem, reproduction – vegetative and sexual, sporophyte, protonema, life cycle. 9.5) Pteris: Distribution and habitat, external morphology of the sporophyte, anatomy of the rhizome(stem), vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction, life cycle. 9.6) Cycas: Distribution and habitat, Morphology of the sporophyte, anatomy of the coralloid root and leaflet, Reproduction, life cycle.
MICROBIOLOGY: 10.1) Introduction and importance of microbiology. 10.2) Bacteria – Discovery, Distribution, sizes, shapes, Gram stain (in brief), structure of cell, nutrition, reproduction –asexual (binary fission), sexual – conjugation (F + and F – only), transformation and transduction (only definition, discoverer and example for transformation and transduction), economic importance – beneficial (Agriculture, industry, Medicine, Biotechnology), harmful (spoilage of food, plants, human and animal diseases). 10.3) Viruses – Historical account, types, structure (TMV and T 4 details), general account of sizes, shapes, replication, plant diseases caused by viruses, transmission of viruses and control measures of viral diseases.
XI. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY :
11.1) Introduction A. WATER RELATIONS OF PLANTS: 11.2) Absorption of water – Introduction, soil water, water potential, diffusion, Imbibition, osmosis, plasmolysis, absorption of water. 11.3) Ascent of Sap : Definition, Cohesion – Tension theory.
11.4) Transpiration : Definition and types of transpiration, mechanism of stomatal movement, factors, significance, anti- transpirants. B. NUTRITION IN PLANTS 11.5) Introduction, types of nutrition (symbiosis, parasitism, chemotrophism, autotrophism). 11.6) Mineral nutrition – Introduction, soil as source, criteria of essentiality, importance of macro and micro elements, ion absorption – passive and active (carrier concept), biofertilizers. C. METABOLISM : 11.7) Enzymes – introduction, properties, IUB classification, mechanism of enzyme action (lock & key theory), enzyme inhibition. 11.8) Photosynthesis – Definition, pigments, structural organization of chloroplast: light reaction – Hill’s reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton translocation, photophosphorylation: C 3 , C 4 pathways,Factors, photorespiration Blackman’s law. 11.9) Respiration – definition, Types, Mechanism of aerobic (Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid & electron transport system – oxidative phosphorylation) and anaerobic respiration, Respiratory quotient (RQ). 11.10) Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, Biological nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non – symbiotic), Genetic code, Protein synthesis. 11.11) Plant growth & its regulators: Growth curve; introduction to growth regulators: physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene and their applications in agriculture and horticulture: Photoperiodism and Vernalization.
PLANTS AND HUMAN WELFARE: 12.1) Crop improvement – Introduction, aim and objectives of plant breeding; methods – definition, methodology, advantages and achievements of introduction, selection (Mass, pure-line, clonal), hybridization (Heterosis- only concept); mutation breeding and polyploidy breeding. Biotechnology: 2.2) Introduction, definition, scope and applications of Biotechnology. 12.3) Genetic Engineering – Recombinant DNA Technology, gene cloning; transgenic plants; GM crops, biosafety issues, applications of Genetic Engineering. 12.4) Tissue Culture – Techniques and applications. 12.5) Single cell protein – Advantages and source of single cell protein. 12.6) Mushroom Cultivation : Morphology and types of mushrooms; food value, cultivation of white button mushroom.