ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Characteristics of electron, proton and neutron. Rutherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s quantum theory. Explanation of photo electric effect. Dual behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Features of atomic spectra – Emission and absorption spectra. Characteristics of hydrogen spectrum. Bohr’s theory of the structure of the atom – Postulates, Theory of hydrogen atom, Energy of an electron. Bohr’s explanation of spectral lines. Failure of Bohr’s theory. Wave-particle nature of electron. De Broglie’s hypothesis, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Important features of the quantum mechanical model of an atom – Meaning and significance of wave function. Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals, definition of atomic orbital in terms of quantum Numbers – shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of atoms. Explanation of stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES: Concept of grouping elements in accordance to their properties – Mendeleef’s Periodic Table. Periodic law – Mendeleef’s classification of elements. Significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification. Classification of elements into s, p, d, f blocks and their main characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements: Atomic radii, Ionic radii, Inert gas radii, Ionization energy, Electron gain energy, Electro- negativity, Valency, variation of oxidation states, Electropositivity – Metallic and Non-metallic nature, Nature of Oxides, Diagonal relationship. Variation of atomic radii in inner transition elements.
CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bonding. Factors favorable for the formation of ionic bond, energy changes in ionic bond formation. Crystal lattice energy – calculation of lattice energy – Born – Haber cycle. Crystal structures of sodium chloride and Caesium chloride, Coordination number. Properties of ionic compounds. Covalent bond – VSEPR theory – Lewis representation of covalent compounds, Formal charge, geometry of simple molecules. The valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds. Directional properties of covalent bond. Properties of covalent bond. Hybridization – different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals. Shapes of simple covalent molecules. Definition of coordinate covalent bond with examples.
STOICHIOMETRY: Laws of chemical combination. Molar mass, concept of equivalent weight with examples. Percentage composition of compounds and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds. Chemical reactions and equations, Stoichiometry. Oxidation number concept. Balancing of redox reactions by ion electron method and oxidation number method. Types of redox reactions.
STATES OF MATTER: GASES Graham’s law of diffusion, Dalton ’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases. Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) – deduction of gas laws. Distribution of molecular velocities and types of molecular velocities– Average, Root Mean Square and Most Probable Velocity.
SOLUTIONS: Classification of solutions, molarity, normality, molality and mole fraction. Dilute solutions, vapor pressure, Raoult’s law, Limitations of Raoult’s law. Colligative properties – (i) Relative lowering of vapor pressure (ii) Elevation of B.P (iii) Depression in freezing point and their relation to molar mass. Osmosis and osmotic pressure – theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molar mass using colligative properties: Ostwald’s dynamic method,Cottrell’s method, Rast’s method and Berkeley Hartley’s method. Abnormal molecular mass.
ELECTRO CHEMISTRY: Conductance in electrolytic solutions. Specific, Equivalent and Molar conductance – variation of conductance with concentration. Kohlrausch’s law – application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox reactions. Electrolysis. Some typical examples of electrolysis viz; Fused Sodium hydroxide, Fused sodium chloride, Brine solution, Fused Magnesium chloride. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and applications. Gavanic and voltaic cells. Representation and notation of electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge. Standard hydrogen electrode, electrode potentials, electrochemical series. EMF of the cell, Nernst equation and its application to calculate EMF of electrochemical cells. Primary cell – dry cell / Lechlanche cell. Secondary cells – Fuel cells: Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell and Hydrocarbon – Oxygen fuel cell. Corrosion – mechanism, factors to promote corrosion and prevention of corrosion. Passivity. Lead accumulator
SOLID STATE : Classification of solids based on different binding forces as molecular, ionic, covalent solids, and metallic solids. Elementary treatment of metallic bond. Metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids. Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Bragg’s equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects – Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magneticproperties.
CHEMICAL KINETICS: Concepts of reaction rate, factors affecting reaction rates. Rate law, Units of rate constant. Order and molecularity. Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction. Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy. Equilibrium: Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors affecting equilibrium. Relation between Kp and Kc Le Chatelier’s principle, application toindustrial synthesis of (i) Ammonia (ii) Sulphur trioxide.
Acids and Bases: Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory. Lewis theory, limitation of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium. Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization. Ionic product of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions. Solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples.
THERMODYNAMICS: Concept of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of “U and “H”. Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization and dilution. Thermo chemical equations. Hess’s law of constant heat summation. Driving force for a spontaneous process. Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function. Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non spontaneous and equilibrium processes.
SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption, Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it – pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature. Catalysis – types of catalysis, autocatalysis. Colloidal state: colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap.
HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen – Preparation, properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactions of hydrogen leading to ionic, molecular and non – stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical properties of water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal. Hydrogen peroxide – methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties – oxidation, reduction, decomposition, disproportionation and addition reactions. Detection, structure and uses of Hydrogen Peroxide.
ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS: Electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water, uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation and properties of Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Preparation and uses of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate.
p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 13 ELEMENTS: (IIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boron- boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum.
p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: (IVA GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon. Important compounds of Silicon – Silicon dioxide. Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and Water gas.
p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (VA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence – physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy, catenation capacity, electronic configuration, Oxidation states. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structure of Hydrides. Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Manufacture and uses of nitric acid, ammonia and Super phosphate of lime.
p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 16 ELEMENTS (VIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states. Physical states of oxygen and sulphur and their structure, allotropy. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chalcogens. Preparation, Properties and uses of Ozone, Sodium thiosulphate. Manufacture of Sulphuric acid.
P- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 17 ELEMENTS (VIIA GROUP ELEMENTS): Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Physical states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electro negativity, Electron affinity, bond energies and chemical reactivity. Oxidizing power of fluorine and chlorine. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter halogen compounds.
GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): Electronic configuration, occurrence and isolation. Trends in physical and chemical properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides.
TRANSITION ELEMENTS: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. General trends in properties of first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds. Alloy formation.
Lanthanides: Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction. Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number. Werner’s theory of coordination compounds. Valence bond theory – shapes of coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of mono molecular coordination compounds. Bonding and EAN rule. Isomerism. Importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY: Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, reduction by chemical and Electrolytic methods and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: Definition of terms, types of Pollution, Air, Water and Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, chloro fluoro carbons. Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain. Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer. Green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes.
HYDROCARBONS: Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Types of organic reactions – substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparation of ethane. Physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, Combustion and Pyrolysis of ethane. Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, physical properties. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions – addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis oxidation.
ALKYNES: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond. Acetylene – Methods of preparation, Physical properties and chemical reactions: acidic character of acetylene, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance and aromaticity, Chemical
properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution – Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and Acylation.
STEREO CHEMISTRY: Optical activity-discovery, determination using a polarimeter, specific rotation, Chirality – Chiral objects, Chiral molecules. Configuration and Fischer projections, Asymmetric carbon, elements of symmetry, compounds containing one chiral centre, enantiomers, D-L and R-S nomenclature, racemic forms, racemisation.Compounds containing two chiral centers, diastereo isomers, meso form, resolution, importance of stereochemistry.
HALOALKANES: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, Preparation and physical and chemical properties of ethyl chloride and chloroform. Mechanism of S N1 , and S N2 reactions. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond,
Chlorobenzene: Preparation and substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for mono substituted compounds only). Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers: Alcohols : Nomenclature of alcohols, Methods of preparation and physical and Chemical properties of ethyl alcohol, Mechanism of dehydration. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Uses methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature of Phenols. Methods of preparation and Physical and chemical properties of phenol, acidic nature of phenol. Electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature of ethers. Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties and uses of diethyl ether. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: Nomenclature, and nature of carbonyl group. Methods of preparation and Physical and Chemical properties and uses of acetaldehyde and acetone. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, Reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes;
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: Nomenclature and acidity of carboxylic acids. Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties and uses of acetic acid. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN: Nitrobenzene: Preparation, properties and uses. Amines: Nomenclature and classification of amines. Structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of Aniline. Identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. Diazonium salts: Preparation, Chemical reactions and importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry. Azo dyes and their uses.
POLYMERS: Classification of polymers. Addition and condensation polymerization. Copolymerization. Natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber – Neoprene and Buna- S. Molecular weights of polymers – Number average and weight average molecular weights (definition only) Biopolymers – Carbohydrates and Proteins. Biodegradable polymers and some commercially important polymers like polythene, nylon, polyesters and bakelite.
BIOMOLECULES Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose). Oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose). Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) – preparation, properties, structures and Importance. Proteins: Elementary idea of Alpha amino acids, peptide bond. Polypeptides and proteins. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of Proteins (Qualitative idea only). Denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Vitamins: Classification and functions of vitamins in biosystems. Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids. Chemical composition of DNA & RNA, Primary structure of DNA and its double helix. Replication. Transcription and protein synthesis, Genetic code. Lipids: Classification, structure and functions of lipids in biosystems. Hormones: Classification, structural features and functions of hormones in biosystems.
CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE: Uses of Chemicals in medicine: Analgesics : Narcotics (morphine, codeine). Non-narcotics (Aspirin, Ibuprofen). Antipyretic (Analgin, phenacetin and paracetamol). Tranquilizers (Barbituric acid, Luminal, seconal, valium, serotonin). Antiseptics (Chloroxylenol, bithional), Disinfectants (formalin, formaldehyde). Antimicrobials (lysozyme, lactic acid, hydrochloric acid in stomach). Antifertility drugs (oral pills). Antibiotics (pencillin, chloramphenicol, sulphadiazine). Antacids (omeprazole, lansoprazole), antihistamines. Chemicals in food preservatives (sodium benzoate, sulphur dioxide, potassium metabisulphite). Artificial sweetening agents (Aspartame, alitane, sucrolose).