KLU Engineering Entrance Examination ZOOLOGY Syllabus
Unit – I Zoology – The Basics a) Nature and scope of Zoology: meaning of Zoology, areas of study under Zoology. b) Relation between Zoology and other sciences c) Basic principles of classification: i) Need for classification. ii)Nomenclature. iii) Levels of classification. iv) Concept of species
Unit – II: LOCOMOTION AND REPRODUCTION INPROTOZOA a) Types and structure of locomotory organelles – Pseudopodia, Cilia and Flagella giving examples. b) Amoeboid movement (Pseudopodial movement – sol-gel theory only) c) Ciliary and Flagellar movements – Synchronal and Metachronal movements (example: Paramoecium), Effective stroke and Recovery stroke (example: Euglena) d) Types of Reproduction: i) Asexual reproduction and methods – Binary fission (transverse and longitudinal in Paramoecium and Euglena respectively). ii) Sexual reproduction – conjugation as exemplified by Vorticella and its significance.
III Animal Organisation a) Multicellularity: Diploblastic and Triploblastic condition. b) Symmetry – Types and characteristic features of each symmetry, giving an example for each type from the representative phyla – Asymmetry, Radial symmetry, Biradial symmetry and Bilateral symmetry. c) Coelom: i) Definition of Acoelom, Pseudo-coelom and Eucoelom – examples from the representative phyla. ii) Formation of Eucoelom -Schizocoelic and Enterocoelic coelom d) Animal Tissues: (brief account only) i) Epithelial tissue – types. ii) Connective tissueconnective tissue proper, skeletal tissue – types, Fluid tissue – Blood, Lymph. iii) Muscular Tissue types. iv) Nervous Tissue
Unit – IV: Phylum Annelida: Pheritima posthuma : Type study in detail. Different species, Habit and Habitat, External characters, structure and arrangement of setae, body wall, Coelom, wall of alimentary canal, locomotion, Digestive system, Respiratory system, Excretory system, Nervous system, Receptor organs, Blood vescular system,Blood glands, Reproductive system, Copulation, cocoon formation, development, regeneration and Economic importance.
Unit – V: Phylum Arthropoda: a) Cockroach – Periplaneta americana – external characters, digestive, respiratory, nervous systems and sense organs only. b) Insect mouth parts of the following types: i) Biting and chewing Eg: Cockroach. ii) Piercing and sucking Eg: Mosquito. iii) Sponging and sucking Eg: Housefly. iv) Siphoning Eg: Butterfly c) Economic importance of insects: i) Useful insects, viz., Honey bee, Lac insect, Silk worm – their produce and general features. ii) Harmful insects, viz., Bed bug, Head Louse, mosquito and housefly – their general features, harmful effects and diseases spread by them.
Unit – VI: Animal Associations: a) Definition and 1 or 2 examples of the following associations: i) Symbiosis: Commensalism, Mutualism, Parasitism. ii) Predation b) Structure, Life cycle, Pathogenesis and Prophylaxis ofthe following parasites: i) Entamoeba histolytica. ii) Plasmodium vivax. iii) Taenia solium. iv) Wuchereria bancrofti Unit-VII General Characters and Classification of Invertebrate Phyla upto The Level of Classes with Examples . a) Phylum: Protozoa. b) Phylum: Porifera, Systematic position. c) Phylum: Coelenterata (Cnidaria). d) Phylum: Platyhelminthes. e) Phylum: Nemathelminthes. f) Phylum: Annelida. g) Phylum: Arthropoda. h) Phylum: Mollusca. i) Phylum: Echinodermata
Unit – VIII: Man and Biosphere: a) Components of environment – atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. b) Hierarchy among the living organisms( definitions- population, community, biome, biosphere). c) Structural components of an ecosystem: Abiotic factors – Light, temperature and water – their biological effect on organisms. Biotic factors – producers, consumers and decomposers. d) Functional aspects of ecosystem – Energy flow, Food chains, Food web, Ecological pyramids. e) Lake as an example of fresh water ecosystem – Littoral zone,Limnetic zone, and profundal zone. f) Population Ecology – Population density, growth, age distribution and population regulation. g) Biodiversity and its conservation. h) Wild life and its conservation
Unit – IX: Phylum Chordata: a) General characters, ancestry and theories of origin and outline classification of Chordata upto classes with typical examples. b) Sub-phylum Vertebrata; i) Pisces : Distinctive features of Placodermi, chondrichthyes & osteichthyes with typical examples, classification of chondrichthyes (upto subclasses) and osteichthyes (upto orders). ii) Amphibia : Distinctive features of Urodela, Anura, Apoda with typical examples. iii) Reptilia : Distinctive features of Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, Crocodelia and Chelonia with typical examples. Identification of poisonous and non-poisonous snakes, poisonous apparatus, toxicity of snake venom and treatment of snake bite including first aid. iv) Aves: Distinctive features of Archeaeornithes & Neornithes(upto super orders only) with typical examples. v) Mammalia: Distinctive features of Prototheria, Metatheria and Eutheria with typical examples.
Unit – X: Functional Anatomy of Rabbit – External characters, Digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems. a) Digestive system: Alimentary canal, Digestive glands, Process of Digestion, Role of vitamins and Minerals in nutrition. b) Respiratory system – Structure, mechanism of breathing and transport of respiratory gases. c) Circulatory system
of Rabbit: Structure of heart, Arterial and venous system, Working of the heart, Coagulation of blood Unit –
XI: Functional Anatomy of Rabbit – Excretory, Musculo – skeletal, Reproductive systems, Nervous and Endocrine systems. a) Excretory system: Excretory organs , Structure and function of Nephron, Urine formation and its composition: Micturition. b) Musculo-skeletal system: Ultra structure, mechanism of muscle contraction (sliding filament theory), Elementary approach of axial and appendicular skeleton of Rabbit, Types of joints. c) Reproductive system: Anatomy of male and female reproductive systems, Fertilization, Development upto gastrulation, extraembryonic membranes, Placenta, gestation. d) Nervous System: Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system, Structure of neuron, Production and propagation of nerve impulse, synaptic transmission. e) Endocrine system – Chemical messengers, hormones and mechanism of their action. Endocrine glands (Pituitary, Pancreas, Thyroid, Para-thyroid, Adrenal, Gastrointestinal, Pineal gland, Thymus, Ovary, Testis and Placenta). Endocrine disorders in human beings(pituitary thyroid, para thyroid, adrenal, pancreatic islet). f) Immunology: Types of Immunity, organs of Immune system, cells of Immune system, soluble mediators of Immunity, Antigens, Mechanism of humoral and cellmediated immunities, Immunological disorders (AIDS, Hepatitis and Hypersensitivity).
UNIT – XII GENETICS: a) Multiple alleles: A,B,O Blood groups, Rh Antigens, their significance in transfusion and Pregnancy. b) Sex determination: Sex chromosomes, xx-xo, zo-zz, xx-xy, zz-zw methods, Genic balance theory, sex determination and sexual differentiation in human beings (Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Barr bodies), Haplo-diploidy in Honeybees, Hormonal control of sex, effect of environment on sex determination. c) Sex-linked Inheritance: Sex linkage in Drosophila, Genes on the sex chromosomes, sex linked characters in human beings, xylinked characters, sex-limited and sex-influenced inheritance. d) Gene expression and regulation: Genetic material, Functions of the gene, Gene regulation in prokaryotes (lac operon concpt only), Gene expression in eukaryotes, concepts of gene action (one gene one polypeptide concept only). e) Basic concepts of animal breeding: system of breeding, Heterosis and progeny test, cloning and transgenic animals. f) Human Genetic Applications: Human genome project, Gene mapping, DNA finger printing, an elementary idea of gene therapy.
UNIT XIII: ORGANIC EVOLUTION a) Evolutionary concepts, Origin of life and Experimental verification of chemical origin of life. b) Theories of organic evolution – Lamarckism, Darwinism, Sexual selection, Artificial selection, Mutation theory, Synthetic theory – Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, Evolutionary forces (Natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, genetic load, change in mutation rate), Speciation.
UNIT XIV: APPLIED ZOOLOGY a) Aqua culture i) Types of Fishery. ii) Important Organisms of Aquaculture. iii) Organisations Concerned with Aquaculture in India . iv) Nutritional and Commercial values of aquatic organisms. v) Craft and Gear. vi) Fish culture and rearing methods. b) Poultry i) Poultry- in general. ii) Poultry farming methods, Layers and Broilers. iii) Poultry diseases (Bacterial, Viral and Fungal) c) Biotechnology i) Recombinant DNA technology. ii) Industrial use of microorganisms and Recombinant DNA technology – Vaccines, Enzymes, Hormones, Interferons, Monoclonal Antibodies, Alcohols, Acids, Vitamins, Antibiotics, Pollution control. ii) Cell Cycle regulation – cancer biology (types and characters of tumours; stages, types and causative agents of cancer). iii) Stem cells. Biomedical technology: X ray -radiography, CAT scan, MRI, ECG and EEG, Transplantation, ELISA