GMAT Verbal Section : GMAT Sample Critical Reasoning Questions

Questions 91-92 are based on the following.

The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

1. If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?
1. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.
2. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.
3. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
4. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.
5. If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services

Answer : C
2. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal costs?
1. The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services.
2. The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services.
3. Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by lawyers who do advertise.
4. Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the specification were not required.
5. Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to advertise.

Answer : E
3. Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm others as a result of taking the risks. As a result, they conclude that it should be each person’s decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above?
1. Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat.
2. Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts.
3. Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings.
4. The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat-belt laws is greater than the rate of fatalities in states that do have such laws.
5. In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are passengers who do wear seat belts.

Answer : B
4. The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?
1. Labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.
2. Importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country Y.
3. The tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Y.
4. The fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Q.
5. It takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in Country Q than it does in Country Y.

Answer : C
5. During the Second World War, about 375,000 civilians died in the United States and about 408,000 members of the United States armed forces died overseas. On the basis of those figures, it can be concluded that it was not much more dangerous to be overseas in the armed forces during the Second World War than it was to stay at home as a civilian.

Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above?
1. Counting deaths among members of the armed forces who served in the United States in addition to deaths among members of the armed forces serving overseas
2. Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the armed forces as a percentage of the total number of deaths
3. Separating deaths caused by accidents during service in the armed forces from deaths caused by combat injuries
4. Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths
5. Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by combat in the armed forces.

Answer : D

# One state adds a 7 percent sales tax to the price of most products purchased within its jurisdiction. This tax, therefore, if viewed as tax on income, has the reverse effect of the federal income tax: the lower the income, the higher the annual percentage rate at which the income is taxed.

The conclusion above would be properly drawn if which of the following were assumed as a premise?

1. The amount of money citizens spend on products subject to the state tax tends to be equal across income levels.
2. The federal income tax favors citizens with high incomes, whereas the state sales tax favors citizens with low incomes.
3. Citizens with low annual incomes can afford to pay a relatively higher percentage of their incomes in state sales tax, since their federal income tax is relatively low.
4. The lower a state’s sales tax, the more it will tend to redistribute income from the more affluent citizens to the rest of society.
5. Citizens who fail to earn federally taxable income are also exempt from the state sales tax.

Answer : A
# The average age of chief executive officers (CEO’s) in a large sample of companies is 57. The average age of CEO’s in those same companies 20 years ago was approximately eight years younger. On the basis of those data, it can be concluded that CEO’s in general tend to be older now.

Which of the following casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

1. The dates when the CEO’s assumed their current positions have not been specified.
2. No information is given concerning the average number of years that CEO’s remain in office.
3. The information is based only on companies that have been operating for at least 20 years.
4. Only approximate information is given concerning the average age of the CEO’s 20 years ago.
5. Information concerning the exact number of companies in the sample has not been given.

Answer : C
# Surveys show that every year only 10 percent of cigarette smokers switch brands. Yet the manufacturers have been spending an amount equal to 10 percent of their gross receipts on cigarette promotion in magazines. It follows from these figures that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay, and that cigarette companies would have been no worse off economically if they had dropped their advertising.

Of the following, the best criticism of the conclusion that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay is that the conclusion is based on

1. computing advertising costs as a percentage of gross receipts, not of overall costs
2. past patterns of smoking and may not carry over to the future
3. the assumption that each smoker is loyal to a single brand of cigarettes at any one time
4. the assumption that each manufacturer produces only one brand of cigarettes
5. figures for the cigarette industry as a whole and may not hold for a particular company

Answer : E
# Toughened hiring standards have not been the primary cause of the present staffing shortage in public schools. The shortage of teachers is primarily caused by the fact that in recent years teachers have not experienced any improvements in working conditions and their salaries have not kept pace with salaries in other professions.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the claims above?

1. Many teachers already in the profession would not have been hired under the new hiring standards.
2. Today more teachers are entering the profession with a higher educational level than in the past.
3. Some teachers have cited higher standards for hiring as a reason for the current staffing shortage.
4. Many teachers have cited low pay and lack of professional freedom as reasons for their leaving the profession.
5. Many prospective teachers have cited the new hiring standards as a reason for not entering the profession.

Answer : C
# A proposed ordinance requires the installation in new homes of sprinklers automatically triggered by the presence of a fire. However, a home builder argued that because more than ninety percent of residential fires are extinguished by a household member, residential sprinklers would only marginally decrease property damage caused by residential fires.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the home builder’s argument?

1. Most individuals have no formal training in how to extinguish fires.
2. Since new homes are only a tiny percentage of available housing in the city, the new ordinance would be extremely narrow in scope.
3. The installation of smoke detectors in new residences costs significantly less than the installation of sprinklers.
4. In the city where the ordinance was proposed, the average time required by the fire department to respond to a fire was less than the national average.
5. The largest proportion of property damage that results from residential fires is caused by fires that start when no household member is present.

Answer : B

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