In the United States, a wide variety of institutions prepare people for technical and vocational occupations. Some schools train for a single job or industry; others offer programs for many different occupations. Programs can last from a few weeks to several years. Courses tend to stress application rather than theory.
Vocational studies are intended to lead to immediate employment. Hands-on training is often a component of the study program and the schools are often called “trade” schools. Vocational studies vary in length from a week to two years and lead to certificates of completion rather than degrees. Common fields of study include construction, automotive mechanics, drafting and secretarial services.
Technical education requires that the student learn concepts, theory and design in addition to practical training. Programs are offered at technical, community and junior colleges and some four-year colleges and universities. Two-year programs generally result in either associate of applied science degrees or pre-baccalaureate technical degrees. Common studies include: computer science, engineering technology, communication technology, allied health, nursing, accounting, business management, fire science, agribusiness, renewable natural resources and horticulture. To obtain a degree, students are required to successfully complete courses not only within their specialty but also courses in general education such as English, mathematics, sciences and history.
Technical and vocational schools, and community and junior colleges award certificates or diplomas upon successful completion of training. These credentials, however, are not equivalent to a four-year college or university degree. Check with officials of your home-country government or with prospective employers to find whether the training you are considering will be appropriate.
Technical and vocational schools usually do not offer English-language training, nor do they provide housing or support services for foreign students. However, such facilities are available at some community and junior colleges. Sometimes schools make arrangements with nearby housing units to rent to students; usually, however, students must find housing in the community after they arrive. Programming agencies may arrange these services for sponsored students.
Technical and vocational schools, and community and junior colleges often create special programs to meet the needs of groups of students. To arrange these programs, home-country governments or companies contract with U.S. educational or training institutions directly or through agencies such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) or private programming agencies. These programs often include English-language training followed by instruction at a technical or vocational school, or a community or junior college.
The Training Environment: Technical and Vocational (Trade) Schools
Technical and vocational schools are often called “trade” schools because they teach a trade or occupation rather than just theory. Trade schools generally offer training in only a few occupations, and sometimes only in one. As a result, they differ considerably from one another. A school for auto mechanics, for example, will be very different from a school for cooks. All of them, however, design their courses to meet the immediate requirements of training for a skill, rather than to provide general education. In most trade schools, the classroom will be similar to the workplace and will provide practice in the skill or trade being learned on the machines or equipment currently in use in the businesses of that particular trade.
Most schools require that students or trainees attend classes every day and be on time. If the job usually begins at 7:30 in the morning, classes will start at that time. Classes usually last about six hours a day, with appropriate time off for lunch.
Unless English training is provided through a special group-training program, the schools expect that students will be able to read, write, speak and understand English, and will know basic mathematics. Courses begin with basic lessons and build up to advanced skills. Throughout the course, the instructor tests each student. To continue in the course, each student must demonstrate mastery of the required skills. Instructors also enforce rules for behavior “on the job,” and often they can be strict in their enforcement. However, the atmosphere is one of encouragement, not fear.
The Training Environment: Community and Junior Colleges
Community and junior colleges also offer training programs directed toward specific technical and vocational goals. Community and junior colleges differ, however, in that they combine technical-skills training with general education. Students who need additional work in English or mathematics can easily find help in a community or junior college, along with courses in business or other subjects that would be helpful in their field of choice.
Although technical classrooms and equipment in a community or junior college resemble the workplace as much as possible, classes meet one or two hours at a time rather than all day, as they do in an academic setting. The overall atmosphere reflects the classroom more than the actual workplace. Instructors offer help and encouragement, with an emphasis on practical skills rather than theory.
Finding Out About Technical and Vocational Programs
Before you choose a technical or vocational training program, you should find out as much information about it as possible. Seek advice from educational advising centers about appropriate types of training for your chosen career. Investigate opportunities for employment in your country in the career that you are considering, after your training is over.
It is very important to check that a school has met basic standards of educational performance. In the United States, there is not a Ministry of Education which directly supervises technical and vocational schools. Although many states require that technical and vocational schools be licensed, regulations are not the same from state to state, and may not be a reflection of educational quality.
Accreditation of a school is a primary key to educational quality. Accreditation of technical and vocational schools in the United States is done by such bodies as:
* Accrediting Commission for Independent Colleges and Schools of the Career College Association;
* Accrediting Commission for Trade and Technical Schools of the Career College Association;
* Commission on Vocational, Technical and Career Institutions of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges; and
* Commission on Occupational Education Institutions of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.
Community and junior colleges are accredited by regional accrediting bodies, including:
* Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges;
* Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools;
* Commission on Colleges of the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges;
* Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools;
* Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges; and
* Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.
An annual publication for the American Council on Education, Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education, gives a complete listing of all accredited institutions, including all vocational and technical schools and community and junior colleges in the United States. This book may be ordered from:
Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc.
Front and Brown Sts.
Riverside, NJ 08075 USA
For aviation-related fields such as pilot training, look for certification by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Selecting a Technical or Vocational Training Program
To select a technical or vocational training program:
* Read brochures and consult materials available in the nearest educational advising center, and then write letters to the schools you have chosen to find if their courses are current, accredited or of high quality, and appropriate for your field and the conditions in your country.
* Find out how long the training in your chosen field will take.
* Find the total cost by adding living expenses to published costs of tuition, supplies and fees. Living expenses vary by region and by living arrangement; assume monthly expenses for basics such as housing and food, and add for hidden costs such as clothing, transportation and health insurance. (See the booklet Undergraduate Study in this series for a breakdown of living expenses while you are in the United States.)
* Make sure that the institution is authorized to issue a Form I-20 M-N (certificate of eligibility for non-immigrant M-1 student status), or a Form I-20 A-B (certificate of eligibility for non-immigrant F-1 status). If you will be participating in a formal exchange program or with government-provided financial assistance, make sure the exchange program or institution is authorized to issue a Form IAP-66 (certificate of eligibility for non-immigrant J-1 exchange visitor status). If the institution or program sponsor is unable to issue one of these forms, you will not be able to apply for the appropriate non-immigrant visa.
* Find out whether you will be able to work directly with equipment that you will be using on the job (look for the phrase “hands-on experience”).
* Ask prospective employers if the credentials you will obtain will be valid for employment in your country.
* Check to see that you meet entry requirements for your chosen school. You must be 18-years-old to attend a community college. Unless an English-language program is provided through a special group training program, a score of 450 to 550 on the Test of English As a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is a basic entry requirement. Schools that require a personal interview or an on-site aptitude test may be difficult to enter from overseas.
* Compare schools you are considering with respect to location, cost, support facilities for foreign students if any, and the certificate you will receive if you successfully complete the program.
* Find out how long the school has been in operation, how large it is, and if possible, what the employment record of its students has been.
* Compare the technical and vocational schools and/or community and junior colleges which interest you.
American Council on International Intercultural Education (ACIIE)
The American Council on International Intercultural Education (ACIIE) is an affiliate of the American Association of Community Colleges. The member institutions of the ACIIE (listed below by location) have made a commitment to international education. Each of the institutions will accept admission from qualified foreign applicants. Many other institutions not listed are also actively involved in international education and accept foreign applications. Other institutions, for various reasons, do not accept applications from foreign students. If you are unable to determine from a school’s catalog or other reference sources whether or not foreign students are eligible for admission, write directly to that school’s office of admissions.
Member Institutions of the ACIIE
University of Alaska, Anchorage, AK 99508
Arizona Western College, Yuma, AZ 85366
Maricopa Community College District, Phoenix, AZ 85034
Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ 85705
Chabot College, Hayward, CA 94545
City College of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94112
Coast Community College District, Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Contra Costa Community College District, Martinez, CA 94553
Cosumnes River College, Sacramento, CA 95823
DeAnza Community College, Cupertino, CA 95014
Foothill College, Los Altos, CA 95022
Grossmont-Cuyamaca Community College, El Cajon, CA 92020
Hartnell College, Salinas, CA 93901
Los Angeles Community College District, Los Angeles,CA 90017
Mission College, Santa Clara, CA 95054
Palomar Community College, San Marcos, CA 92069
Saddleback College, Mission Viejo, CA 92692
Santa Barbara City College, Santa Barbara, CA 93109
State Center Community College District, Fresno, CA 93704
Yosemite Community College District, Modesto, CA 95352
Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs, CO 80906
Manchester Community College, Manchester, CT 06040
Brevard Community College, Cocoa, FL 32922
Daytona Beach Community College, Daytona Beach, FL 32115
Florida Community College, Jacksonville, FL 32202
Lake City Community College, Lake City, FL 32055
Miami-Dade Community College, Miami, FL 22132-2296
Kapiolani Community College, Honolulu, HI 96816
Kauai Community College, Lihue, HI 96766
Tokai University at Honolulu, Honolulu, HI 96822
University of Hawaii Community College Systems, 2327 Dole St., Honolulu, HI 96822
University of Hawaii Employment Training Center, 33 S. King St., Honolulu, HI 96813-4323
Windward Community College, Kaneohe, HI 96744
Black Hawk College, Moline, IL 61265
College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL 60137
College of Lake County, Grayslake, IL 60030
Elgin Community College, Elgin, IL 60123
Harry S. Truman College, Chicago, IL 60640
Illinois Central College, East Peoria, IL 60635
Illinois Eastern Community College, Olney, IL 62430
John A. Logan College, Carterville, IL 62918
Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL 60436
Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, IL 60465
Oakton Community College, Des Plaines, IL 60016
Parkland College, Champaign, IL 61821
South Suburban College, South Holland, IL 60473
William Rainey Harper College, Palatine, IL 60067
Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, IA 50021
Eastern Iowa Community College District, Davenport,IA 52801
Iowa Lakes Community College, Estherville, IA 51334
Kirkwood Community College, Cedar Rapids, IA 52406
Coffeyville Community College, Coffeyville, KS 67337
Dodge City Community College, Dodge City, KS 67801
Johnson County Community College, Overland Park, KS 66210
Kansas City Kansas Community College, Kansas City, KS 66112
Fisher College, 118 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02116
Middlesex Community College, Bedford, MA 01730
North Shore Community College, Danvers, MA 01923
Charles Stewart Mott Community College, Flint, MI 48503
Delta College, University Center, MI 48710
Lake Michigan College, Benton Harbor, MI 49022
Lansing Community College, Lansing, MI 48901
Macomb Community College, Warren, MI 48093
Oakland Community College, Royal Oak, MI 48067
St. Clair County Community College, Port Huron, MI 48061
Normandale Community College, Bloomington, MN 55431
North Hennepin Community College, Brooklyn Park, MN 55445
Northwest Technical College, Thief River Falls, MN 56701
St. Louis Community College, St. Louis, MO 63102
Salish Kootenai College, Pablo, MT 59855
Metropolitan Community College, Omaha, NE 68103
Bergen Community College, Paramus, NJ 07652
County College of Morris, Randolph, NJ 07869
San Juan College, Farmington, NM 87401
University of New Mexico-Gallup, Gallup, NM 87301
Broome Community College, Binghamton, NY 13902
Dutchess Community College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601
Erie Community College, Buffalo, NY 14203
Fashion Institute of Technology, New York, NY 10001
Rockland Community College, Suffern, NY 10901
Cuyahoga Community College District, Cleveland, OH 44115
Sinclair Community College, Dayton, OH 45402
Tulsa Junior College, Tulsa, OK 74135
Chemeketa Community College, Salem, OR 97309
Lane Community College, Eugene, OR 97405
Portland Community College, Portland, OR 97219
Horry-Georgetown Technical College, Conway, SC 29526
Motlow State Community College, Tullahoma, TN 37388
Amarillo College, Amarillo, TX 79178
Austin Community College, Austin, TX 78752
Dallas County Community College District, Dallas, TX 75202
Houston Community College System, Houston, TX 77004
Salt Lake Community College, Salt Lake City, UT 84130
Utah Valley Community College, Orem, UT 84058
J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA 23261
Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach, VA 23456
Community Colleges of Spokane, Spokane, WA 99207
Edmonds Community College, Lynnwood, WA 98036
Pierce College, Tacoma, WA 98374
Skagit Valley College, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273
South Puget Sound Community College, Olympia, WA 98502
Whatcom Community College, Bellingham, WA 98226
Fox Valley Technical College, Appleton, WI 54913
Madison Area Technical College, Madison, WI 53704
Milwaukee Area Technical College, Milwaukee, WI 53233
Northcentral Technical College, Wausau, WI 54401
Waukesha County Technical College, Pewaukee, WI 53072
Sheridan College, Sheridan, WY 82801
Most technical and vocational schools, and community and junior colleges admit applicants who have a desire to take the vocational course, aptitude for the skills required, funds to pay for the course and the equivalent of a U.S. high school diploma. In some cases, applicants can use the General Educational Development Test (G.E.D.) instead of a high school diploma. This test is sometimes available in your home country through the educational advising office.
After you have selected four or five appropriate institutions, write a letter of inquiry (on p. xx) to each one, giving basic information about your plans and qualifications.
In the meantime, apply to take the Test of English As A Foreign Language (TOEFL). Because English is the language of instruction, foreign students must show that they can speak and understand — and often read and write — English. Usually technical and vocational schools, and community and junior colleges require a TOEFL score of 450 to 550.
Sample Letter Of Inquiry For Information and Application Forms
(Please type or print very carefully)
Office of Admissions or Director of Admissions
Name of School
City and State (Zip Code)
Please send information and application forms about training in (job/occupation skill)
to me at the address below:
Your Mailing Address:
Mr./Mrs./Ms. (Given/First Name) (FAMILY/LAST NAME)
(P.O. Box/Street and Number)
(City), (Country), (Mailing Code)
I have completed (number) years of school in (country). The highest degree, diploma, or certificate I have earned is (name of type). My TOEFL score is (_) (or) I have not yet taken TOEFL, but plan to take it on (date). I have the following amount of money available for study and living expenses (U.S.$). I can begin study (date).
Other schools, particularly computer training institutes, may ask that an applicant also take an aptitude examination. Occasionally, schools may request a personal interview.
Allow at least four months from registration to receipt of the score by the institutions you have chosen. When application forms arrive, complete them neatly, completely and carefully, and return them, together with any required application fee, by airmail. If you are accepted, you will receive a letter of acceptance and the appropriate certificate of eligibility with which to apply for a non-immigrant visa. That certificate will be a Form I-20 M-N, Form I-20 A-B or Form IAP-66.
If you are accepted at a “proprietary” (private) trade school, the school will probably require a deposit and will ask you to sign a binding contract listing a schedule of payments, a tuition refund policy and a cancellation policy. Be sure that you understand the contract before you sign it.
Applying for a Visa
Most foreign students attend U.S. schools and other educational institutions as F-1 non-immigrants, including students attending community, technical and junior colleges. Some students and trainees attending technical, trade and vocational institutions, or non-academic schools will attend as M-1 non-immigrants. If a foreign student or trainee is participating in a formal exchange program or with the financial sponsorship of the U.S. or a foreign government, international organization or certain other sponsors, he or she will attend as a J-1 non-immigrant.
To apply for one of these non-immigrant visas, go to the U.S. embassy or consulate nearest you. It is best to consult the U.S. diplomatic post for the hours it is open, when it accepts non-immigrant visa applications, and what if any special documentation requirements may be imposed at that facility. If there is more than one U.S. consular post in your country, it is also best to ascertain which post you are required to visit in order to apply for a visa.
When you go to the U.S. embassy or consulate, take the following items with you:
* Your passport, in most cases valid for at least six months after the date you plan to complete your studies in the United States;
* The Form I-20 M-N, Form I-20 A-B or Form IAP-66 as completed by the U.S. institution or sponsor, together with your letter of admission to the school in the United States;
* A photograph, 5 cm by 5 cm, with your signature in English on the back;
* Your secondary school records and diploma;
* Affidavit of financial support form and/or evidence of financial support such as a personal bank statement;
* Evidence of English-language ability; and
* Any other documents of local importance.
Some consular posts require the use of a visa application form and in certain cases there is a fee for the visa issuance. Consult the U.S. embassy or consulate in your country regarding these and other local arrangements.
Present all documents to a U.S. consular officer. Generally, a consular officer will personally interview you, examine your documents and review your plans for training in the United States.
Before going to the interview, be sure that you complete all required portions of the certificate of eligibility (Forms I-20 M-N, I-20 A-B and IAP-66). The statements that you will be asked to sign will include:
* That your purpose in visiting the United States is to remain temporarily to pursue a full course of study at the school specified on the certificate of eligibility;
* That you will not accept employment or engage in a business while in the United States without appropriate permission;
* That adequate finances are available for the entire period of your study;
* That you will notify the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) promptly of any change of address; and
* That you authorize the school you will be attending to release certain information about you to the INS (for M-1 and F-1 students).
Please note that the certificate of eligibility is not a visa; nor does it guarantee that a visa will be issued. The determination to issue a visa rests solely with the consular officer.
If you are granted a visa, the consular officer will stamp it into your passport, noting the name of the institution issuing the certificate of eligibility. This indicates your intention to pursue a full course of study at that institution. For entry into the United States, the institution noted on your visa must correspond with the certificate of eligibility you are carrying and the institution you plan on attending.
If you decide to attend a different institution than the one noted on the visa stamped in your passport and you have received a certificate of eligibility from that institution, contact the U.S. consular post prior to your departure for the United States to attempt to have the change reflected on your visa.
Spouses and dependents of M-1, F-1 and J-1 non-immigrants may apply for M-2, F-2 and J-2 visas in order to accompany you during your temporary stay in the United States. Applications for these derivative visas may be made at the same time that you seek to get a visa, or these visas may be applied for separately. If spouses or dependents will be applying and/or traveling separately, they will need separate copies for the certificate of eligibility in order to get a visa and enter the United States. Please note that spouses and dependents of M-1 and F-1 students are not allowed to accept employment or engage in business while in the United States. In certain cases, J-2 non-immigrants may seek employment permission. For more information about this, consult the sponsoring organization that issued the Form IAP-66.
INS regulations controlling the admission of M-1 and F-1 students are similar. However, M-1 students (students enrolled in a full-time program at an authorized vocational, technical or non-academic institution) have certain additional restrictions, including:
* An M-1 student’s program may not last longer than one year.
* An M-1 student may not change fields of study.
* An M-1 student will not receive permission to change schools after the first six months at the school unless he/she is unable to continue the program at the original school.
* Employment will not be authorized under any circumstances for M-1 students, even for on-campus employment or in cases of internships or cooperative education programs.
* Practical training is permitted, but only after the classroom training program is complete. Prior approval of the INS is required.
* An M-1 student may not change his/her non-immigrant status to that of an F-1 student.
Regulations controlling J-1 students and trainees are substantially different than those controlling M-1 and F-1 students. For more details about the specific requirements of a program you may participate in as a J-1 Exchange Visitor, contact the sponsoring organization.
Finally, it is important to note that, under no circumstances should there be an attempt to enter the United States on a B-1 “business” or B-2 “tourist” visa with the intention of changing your non-immigrant status once in the United States to M-1, F-1 or J-1 non-immigrant status. Such attempts are grounds for denial of the change of status request and could result in deportation and prosecution for visa fraud.
Trainees sponsored by U.S. government-funded programs or by certain other sponsors enter the U.S. as J-1 sponsored students. Regulations governing J-1 sponsored students differ; information will be furnished by the sponsoring agency.
Sources of Further Information
The following references may be available in your advising center or USIS library. This is only a sampling of available resources and does not imply endorsement.
Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Accreditation. Macmillan Publishing Company, Front and Brown Sts., Riverside, NJ 08075.
An annual publication for the American Council on Education which lists all accredited postsecondary institutions in the United States, including trade and technical schools, and community and junior colleges.
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS
American Trade School Directory. Croner Publications, Inc., 211-05 Jamaica Ave., Queens Village, NY 11428.
An annual listing of technical and vocational schools listed by city and state, with indication of accreditation status, visa information and subspecialties offered. Monthly supplements in a loose-leaf format.
Career Education That Works for America. Career College Association, 750 First St., N.E., Suite 900, Washington, D.C. 20002-4242.
An annual publication listing and program description of trade, technical and junior colleges accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Independent Colleges and Schools and the Accrediting Commission for Trade and Technical Schools of the Career College Association.
Directory of FAA-Certified Aviation Maintenance Technical Schools. Annual. Department of Transportation/ FAA, Publications Section, M442.32, Washington, D.C. 20590.
List of Certified Pilot Schools. Annual. Order Number: AC 140 2U. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20590.
Technical, Trade and Business School Data Handbook, National Edition, 1994-96. Orchard House, Inc., Balls Hill Rd., Concord, MA 01742.
Multiple volume publication organized by geographic region with comprehensive school and program descriptions.
COMMUNITY AND JUNIOR COLLEGES
Peterson’s Annual Guide to Two-Year Colleges. Peterson’s Guides, P.O. Box 2123, Princeton, NJ 08543.
Contains profiles of over 1,450 accredited two-year institutions, with directories of schools by geographic area and by major.
Who’s Who in Community Colleges. Annual. American Association of Community Colleges. One Dupont Circle, N.W., Suite 410, Washington, D.C. 20036.
Annual directory lists all two-year institutions in the United States, Canada and some foreign countries with names of key administrators, addresses, phone and fax numbers. Publication also includes information about AACC policies and affiliated organizations.