Indian Forest Services (IFS) Examination General English Paper 2011


Candidates should attempt ALL questions. The number of marks carried by each question. is indicated at the end of the question.

Answers must be written in ENGLISH,
Note: You must not disclose your identity in any of your answers in any way.

1. Write an essay, in about 800 to 1000 words, on any one of the following topics: 100

(a) Are our explorations into space a waste of national resources
(b) Right to free and compulsory education myth and reality.
(c) Media Trials : Reliability and legality.
(d) The Human Rights activities in India.
(e) Conflict between social conventions and legal system.

2. Write a letter in about 200-250 words, to the Minister for Road Transport of your state, outlining the traffic hazards and suggesting remedial measures. 50


Prepare a report, in about 200-250 words, on a natural calamity that hit your state.

3., Attempt a precis of the following passage in your own words using not less than 240 words and not more than 275 words. Give a suitable title and mention the exact number of words used in your precis. The precis must be written only with special precis sheet provided 75.

Is democracy good for development? Few would dare to answer in the negative, and many would hesitate even to raise the question. Most persons believe that democracy is a good thing and so is development, and that therefore the two must move hand in hand. Yet, the i relationship between democracy and development, is an extremely complex one, as we can easily see from a comparison of the experiences of the different countries in our own continent.
India and China have been compared and contrasted repeatedly over the last fifty years. Indias record of democracy has been exceptional in the non-Western world. There have been regular elections at every level from the village panchayat to the national parliament, involving a plurality of parties. The rule of law has been sustained by a

sound constitution and a responsible judiciary. It is true that the elections have not always been free or fair and that the law is violated regularly and persistently, but few would seriously question the significance and value of these institutions. There has been, on the whole, little official restraint on the free flow of information or on open public debate and discussion.

Chinas record of democracy has by contrast with Indias. been exceedingly poor. Not only was. there no plurality of parties and hence no elections in any meaningful sense, but the rule of law was, and to this day remains, very weakly developed. If democracy means the tolerance of dissent, that was effectively suppressed _during the long reign of Chairman Mao, and dissenting. voices are barely audible even now. No two countries could be more unlike than China and India so far as the public expression of dissent is concerned.

The suppression of the free flow of information and of public dissent has been responsible for untold human suffering in China. The most dramatic example of this suffering, now widely acknowledged both within and outside the country was that caused by the famines which took millions of. lives. it is unlikely that famines on such a scale could cause so much loss of life in an open and democratic society, no matter how meager . its material resources. The press and {the public opinion would see to it that the government moved food supplies to the worst-affected areas. The people would be far less passive and authorities far less callous in India. than in China. Where free institutions exist, no government can expect to survive if it turns its back upon massive human suffering, and this undoubtedly is a good thing for development, no matter how we define the term.

Although lndia may take in its performance as a free and open society, its record of development in the last fifty years leaves much to be desired. At least in Asia and particularly in East Asia, many far less democratic countries have done rather better. And this will stand true even if we set aside such crude indicators of development as per capita income and look instead at more basic indicators i such as safe drinking water, primary health care and elementary education. The institutions that give protection from famine do not necessarily ensure the rapid. spread of either elementary .education or primary health care. Perhaps awe will learn something about how a democracy works in the real world if we ask why a country that has fared reasonably well in combating famine has fared so badly endowing its ordinary citizens with. certain basic capabilities.

It would be pleasing to believe that the basic amenities of life are always more easily secured under democratic than under authoritarian regimes. This obviously is not the case in every phase of development. China provides only the extreme example: Korea, Malaysia, and even Indonesia have done rather better in regard-to basic health and education under more or less authoritarian regimes.

However much we may deplore the lack of democratic freedoms in authoritarian regimes, we should not believe that they have no interest whatever in the health and well-being of their people. They have their own interest, including the desire for industrial and military power, in their people even when they lack a strong sense of accountability to them. Ordinary people do not always create their own capabilities, and others do not create capabilities in them front motives that are entirely laudable. .

In a democracy, the creation of capabilities is a slow and uneven process, subject to many conflicting pulls and pressures. Authoritarian regimes are often effective levelers of social distinctions even though they maintain marked A inequalities of power between the rulers and the ruled. The democratic process does not eliminate social distinctions; it only moderates and rearranges them. (776)

4. (a) Write ten short sentences using each of the
following words; ix10=10
(i) channel
(iii) gesture
(iv) jester
(v) emigrant
(vi) immigrant
(vii) scheme
(viii) skim
(ix) alternative
(x) alternate

(b) Use the appropriate words to indicate the sounds of the animals and birds mentioned below : (eg. Dogs bark) 2×5=10
(i) monkeys
(ii) pigeons
(i ii) crows
(iv) ducks
(v) sheep

(c) Write down the appropriate words which stand for the names 0f the off springs of the foliowing birds and animals 2×5=10

(i) fish
(ii) frog
(iii) swam
(iv) deer
(v) elephant

5 (a) Use each of the following expressions and construct a sentence of your own in such a way that the meaning of the expression is clearly brought out. 2×5=10

(i) look a gift horse in the mouth
(ii) lame duck
(iii) Achilles”heel
(iv) blow hot and cold
(v)keep a stiff upper lip

b) Write down the past participle form of the following words 1×5=5
(i) seek
(ii) come
(iii) swim
(iv) wring
(v) lend

(c) Use each of the following words and construct u sentence of your own 1 .1×5=5
(i) penury _
(ii) precarious
(iii) mortify
(iv) proscribe
(v) confidant

6. Rewrite the following sentences as directed: 2X10=20.

(a) I think he is dead by now. (Use “must”)
(b) 4 She is one of the most studious students in her class. (Use the comparative degree)
(c) She said to her mother, “Do yon know where
my father has gone ?”
(Change it into indirect speech)
(d) This chair is too rickety to be used.
(Use the negative without changing the meaning)
(e) Put out the light.(Change it into passive voice)
(f) He admitted his guilt.
(Change it. into complex sentence)
(g) If you request him, he will helpmate.
(Use “unless” instead of “it-)
(h) A group of students were listening to a lecture.
(Correct the sentence)
(i) The teacher has gone to the school,
(Correct the sentence)
(j) As soon as the mother left the home, the child
began to cry. (Use the “no sooner” form)

7. Write short sentences using cach of the following : 1X5=5
(a) prima facie
(b) sub judice
(c) de jure .
(d) fait accompli
(e) Status quo ante

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