1)What is OOPs?
Ans: Object oriented programming organizes a program around its data,i.e.,objects and a set of well defined interfaces to that data.An object-oriented program can be characterized as data controlling access to code.
2)what is the difference between Procedural and OOPs?
Ans: a) In procedural program, programming logic follows certain procedures and the instructions are executed one after another. In OOPs program, unit of program is object, which is nothing but combination of data and code.
b) In procedural program,data is exposed to the whole program whereas in OOPs program,it is accessible with in the object and which in turn assures the security of the code.
3)What are Encapsulation, Inheritance and Polymorphism?
Ans: Encapsulation is the mechanism that binds together code and data it manipulates and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse.
Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object.
Polymorphism is the feature that allows one interface to be used for general class actions.
4)What is the difference between Assignment and Initialization?
Ans: Assignment can be done as many times as desired whereas initialization can be done only once.
5)What are Class, Constructor and Primitive data types?
Ans: Class is a template for multiple objects with similar features and it is a blue print for objects. It defines a type of object according to the data the object can hold and the operations the object can perform. Constructor is a special kind of method that determines how an object is initialized when created.
Primitive data types are 8 types and they are: byte, short, int, long, float, double, boolean, char
6)What is an Object and how do you allocate memory to it?
Ans: Object is an instance of a class and it is a software unit that combines a structured set of data with a set of operations for inspecting and manipulating that data. When an object is created using new operator, memory is allocated to it.
7)What is the difference between constructor and method?
Ans: Constructor will be automatically invoked when an object is created whereas method has to be called explicitly.
8)What are methods and how are they defined?
Ans: Methods are functions that operate on instances of classes in which they are defined. Objects can communicate with each other using methods and can call methods in other classes.Method definition has four parts. They are name of the method, type of object or primitive type the method returns, a list of parameters and the body of the method. A method’s signature is a combination of the first three parts mentioned above.
9)What is the use of bin and lib in JDK?
Ans: Bin contains all tools such as javac, appletviewer, awt tool, etc., whereas lib contains API and all packages.
10)What is casting?
Ans: Casting is used to convert the value of one type to another.
11)How many ways can an argument be passed to a subroutine and explain them?
Ans: An argument can be passed in two ways. They are passing by value and passing by reference.Passing by value: This method copies the value of an argument into the formal parameter of the subroutine.Passing by reference: In this method, a reference to an argument (not the value of the argument) is passed to the parameter.
12)What is the difference between an argument and a parameter?
Ans: While defining method, variables passed in the method are called parameters. While using those methods, values passed to those variables are called arguments.
13)What are different types of access modifiers?
Ans: public: Any thing declared as public can be accessed from anywhere.
private: Any thing declared as private can’t be seen outside of its class.
protected: Any thing declared as protected can be accessed by classes in the same package and subclasses in the other packages.
default modifier : Can be accessed only to classes in the same package.
14)What is final, finalize() and finally?
Ans: final : final keyword can be used for class, method and variables.A final class cannot be subclassed and it prevents other programmers from subclassing a secure class to invoke insecure methods.A final method can’ t be overriddenA final variable can’t change from its initialized value.finalize( ) : finalize( ) method is used just before an object is destroyed and can be called just prior to garbage collecollection finally : finally, a key word used in exception handling, creates a block of code that will be executed after a try/catch block has completed and before the code following the try/catch block. The finally block will execute whether or not an exception is thrown. For example, if a method opens a file upon exit, then you will not want the code that closes the file to be bypassed by the exception-handling mechanism. This finally keyword is designed to address this contingency.
15)What is UNICODE?
Ans: Unicode is used for internal representation of characters and strings and it uses 16 bits to represent each other.
16)What is Garbage Collection and how to call it explicitly?
Ans: When an object is no longer referred to by any variable, java automatically reclaims memory used by that object. This is known as garbage collection.System.gc() method may be used to call it explicitly.
17)What is finalize() method ?
Ans: finalize () method is used just before an object is destroyed and can be called just prior to garbage collection.
18)What are Transient and Volatile Modifiers?
Ans: Transient: The transient modifier applies to variables only and it is not stored as part of its object’s Persistent state. Transient variables are not serialized.Volatile: Volatile modifier applies to variables only and it tells the compiler that the variable modified by volatile can be changed unexpectedly by other parts of the program.
19)What is method overloading and method overriding?
Ans: Method overloading: When a method in a class having the same method name with different arguments is said to be method overloading.
Method overriding : When a method in a class having the same method name with same arguments is said to be method overriding.
20)What is difference between overloading and overriding?
Ans: a) In overloading, there is a relationship between methods available in the same class whereas in overriding, there is relationship between a superclass method and subclass method.
b) Overloading does not block inheritance from the superclass whereas overriding blocks inheritance from the superclass.
c) In overloading, separate methods share the same name whereas in overriding,subclass method replaces the superclass.
d) Overloading must have different method signatures whereas overriding must have same signature.
21) What is meant by Inheritance and what are its advantages?
Ans: Inheritance is the process of inheriting all the features from a class. The advantages of inheritance are reusability of code and accessibility of variables and methods of the super class by subclasses.
22)What is the difference between this() and super()?
Ans: this() can be used to invoke a constructor of the same class whereas super() can be used to invoke a super class constructor.
23)What is the difference between superclass and subclass?
Ans: A super class is a class that is inherited whereas sub class is a classthat does the inheriting.
24) What modifiers may be used with top-level class?
Ans: public, abstract and final can be used for top-level class.
25)What are inner class and anonymous class?
Ans: Inner class : classes defined in other classes, including those defined in methods are called inner classes. An inner class can have any accessibility including private.Anonymous class : Anonymous class is a class defined inside a method without a name and is instantiated and declared in the same place and cannot have explicit constructors.
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