Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Officer Trainee Written Test Syllabus
Written Test Details
Section I: General Aptitude
* Intellectual Potential test
* Quantitative Aptitude test
* Test of English Language
Section II: Technical / Professional Knowledge (click on respective position / branch for detailed syllabus)
A. Officer Trainee – Engineering Disciplines
Electronics & Telecommunications
B. Officer Trainee : Fire & Safety
Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.
2 Engineering Materials
Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
3 Strength of Materials
Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders, thickwalled vessels; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular members; columns and struts; strain energy and impact loading; thermal stresses; Rotating Rims & Discs; Bending of Curved Bars.
4 Theory of Machines
Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms, kinematic synthesis of mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slidercrank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels; static and dynamic force analysis; balancing of rotating components; governors.
Thermodynamic system and processes; Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics;; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of pure substances, ideal and real gases; calculation of work and heat in ideal and real processes; Rankine and Brayton cycles with modifications, analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion; vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.
Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr’s circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
2 Structural Analysis: Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.
3 Concrete Structures: Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design- basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
4 Steel Structures: Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections- simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
5 Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil classification, three – phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability and seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.
6 Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes- infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types- foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations- bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands and clays. Deep foundations -pile types, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, negative skin friction.
7 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli’s equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. K inematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.
8 Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.
9 Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.
10 Water requirements: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
11 Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits
Electrical Engineering- Syllabus
Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers – biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit / 16-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.
2 Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
3 Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance. 4 Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Qmeters; oscilloscopes; error analysis.
5 Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer – equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines – performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and
6 Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs – static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters – fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis
concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives. Variable speed control of AC machines.
7 Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts. Numeric Relays.
8 Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering- Syllabus
Signals and Systems
Signals: Introduction, Types of signals, Continuous-time and discrete time signals. Continuous-time and Discrete time systems and Basic system properties. Linear time-invariant systems: Discrete and Continuous time systems, convolution sum, convolution Integral, Properties, causal LTI systems described by difference equations, singularity function. Representation of periodic signal by Fourier: Continuous-time and discrete-time signals, Properties Representation of aperiodic signals by Fourier Transform: Continuous-time and discrete-time signals, Properties, System characterized by linear constant coefficient differential equation.
Z-transform: The region of Convergence, Inverse z-transform, pole zero plot, Properties of z-transform, Analysis and characterization of LTI system using z- Transform. Sampling: representation of Continuous-time signals by its samples, sampling theorem, Impulse train sampling, Sampling with zero order hold, Reconstruction of signal from its samples using interpolation, Aliasing. Discrete time processing of continuous time signals, Digital differentiator, half sample delay, Sampling of Discrete-time signals, Decimation and interpolation.
Random signals: review of probability theory.
Random variable: Continuous and Discrete, Description of Continuous Random variable, Statistical averages. Description of Discrete Random variable, Statistical averages.
Random processes: definition, properties and types.
2 Electromagnetic Theory
Overview of electrostatics and magnetostatics. Laplace and Poission’s equation, Solution of Laplace equation by separation of variables in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical co-ordinates, cylindrical and spherical harmonics, Examples.
Maxwell’s equations for static fields, their modifications for time-varying fields conducting and dielectric media. EM Wave equations and uniform plane waves, in free space and in lossy medium, g, a, b, l, vp, vg, and h, wave propagation in good dielectrics, in good conductors: Depth of penetration, Poynting vector and power flow, Reflection and refraction of EM Waves. Transmission lines : Transmission line equations, Parameters- primary and secondary constants, Reflection coefficient and SWR, Metched Transmission line, Impedance matching, Smith chart problems, Analogy of transmission lines with e.m. waves.
3 MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION. Principle of measurement and error analysis. Electrical instruments: DC & AC voltage and current meters, power and energy meters, extension of instrument ranges, potentiometers and bridges: Measurement of inductance and capacitance, Measurement of low, medium and high resistances, Electronic instruments for V,.I,.Z, Q, P, frequency and phase. Instrument Transformers and their application, Measurement of speed frequency and power factor, Introduction to transducers, Harmonic Analyzer and Power Analyzer, Transducers
Chemical Eng -Syllabus
Chemical Reaction Engineering:
(a) Kinetics & Interpretation of batch reactor data
(b) Design of reactors for single & multiple reactors
(c) Non Isothemal reactions
(d) Heterogeneous catalytic & non – catalytic reactions
(e) Non – ideal reactors
2 Heat Transfer:
(d) Heat Transfer Equipment.
3 Mass Transfer:
(a) Diffusion & Mass Transfer Theories
(c) Gas – Liquid Operations
(i) Gas Absorption
(ii) Humidification & Dehumidification.
(d) Gas – Sold Operation: Adsorption.
(e) Liquid – Liquid Operation: Extraction
(f) Liquid – Solid Operations
(i) Leaching & (ii) Crystallization
4 Momentum Transfer & Mechanical Operations
5 Polymer Synthesis:(a) Chain Polymerization
(b) Step – Growth Polymerization
(c) Condensation Polymerization
6 Polymer Technology:
(a) Polymer Melt Processing to end use products
7 Polymer Testing:
(a) Physical & Mechanical Properties Testing
(b) Optical & Electric Properties Testing
(c) Analytical Testing
(d) Instruments for Polymer Testing
(a) Thermodynamic Laws
(b) P –V – T relationship
(c) Thermodynamics of Flow Processes
(d) Thermodynamic Cycles
(e) Solution Thermodynamics
(f) Phase Equilibria & Chemical Equilibria
Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems: Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit theorems. One-port and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.
2 Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation: Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, humidity, hydrazine, silica, dissolved O2. Units and standards of measurement.
3 Analog Electronics: Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits. Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage. Feedback amplifiers. Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations. Instrumentation amplifier. Precision rectifier. V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators. Voltage stabiliser andregulator circuits. Inverter and converter circuits.
4 Digital Electronics: Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops,counters,shift registers. Multiplexer,S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing. Microcontrollers.
5 Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
6 Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital
modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM. Basic Network topology and Net work hard wares. LAN / WAN configurations. UTP and OFC Links and components. Serial and parallel communication, Shielding and grounding. IEEE standards and broadband.
7 Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Q-meter and waveform analyzer. Digital voltmeter and multi-meter. Time, phase and frequency measurements. Cathode ray oscilloscope. Instrument Transformer.
8 Control Systems and Process Control: Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steady state-errors. Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems. Phase and gain margin. State space representation of systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P, P-I, P-I-D, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers. Multi-state variable and Adaptative controls. System modeling, Digital controls, Distributed digital controls, control loops based on computers.
Note : Please note the syllabus indicated is exhaustive, however candidates are expected to possess knowledge pertaining to their respective Qualifying degree / Educational background (as applicable).