* Biology (Botany & Zoology)
Biology (Botany & Zoology)
The Living World
Nature and scope of Biology. Methods of Biology. Our place in the universe. Laws that govern the universe and life. Level of organization. Cause and effect relationship.
Being alive â€“ what does it mean? Present approach to understand life processes; self duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of life. An attempt to define life in the above.
Origin of life and its maintenance. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life processes, the living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative aspects of progress in biological sciences. The future of the living world, identication of human responsibility in shaping our future.
Unity of life
Cell as a unit of life. Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and their chemistry. Cellular location and function. Macromolecules in cells-their chemistry, cellular location and functional significance. Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes; chemical nature, classification, mechanism in action â€“ enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), irreversible activation. Biomembranes. Fluid mosaic model of membrane in transport recognition of external information (brief). Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic views of cell, its organelles and their functions; Nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, Lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall, cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions, A general account of cellular respiration. Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle outline), motochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis.
Diversity of Life
Introduction. The enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcoming of a two kingdom classification as plants and animals; a five kingdom classification. Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. The basic features of five kingdom classification; modes of obtaining nutrition-autotrophs and heterotrophs. Life styles : producers, consumers and decomposers, Unicellualarity and multicellularity phylogenetic relationships. Concepts of species, taxon and categries-hierarchical levels of classification; binomial nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages and organisms. Kingdom Monera-archaebacteria-life in extreme environments: Bacteria, actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria, Examples to oillustrate autotrophic and heterotrophic life style; mineralizer-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms; disease producers. Kingdom Protista-Eucarytoic unicellular organisms; development of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. Various life styles show in the major phyla. Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms. Plant kingdom-complex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of land bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Vascularization: development of flower, fruit and seed. Kingdom fungi-lower fungi (Zygomycetes) higher fungi; (Ascomycetes animal kingdom-animal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in invertebarate vertebrate phyla. Salient feature with reference to habitat and example of phyla-porifera, coelenterata, helminthes, annelids, mollusca, arthopoda, echinoderms; chordata-(classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) highlighting major characters.
Organism and Environment
Species: Origin and concept of species population; interaction between environment and populations; community. Biotic community, interaction between different species, biotic stability, changes in the community-succession, Ecosystem; Interaction between biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems, man made ecosystem-Agroecosystem Biosphere; flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food chain, food web. Biogeochemical cycle, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences. Conservation of natural resources; renewable and non-renewable (in brief). Water and land management , wasteland development. Wild life and forest conservation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species-Indian examples, conservation of forest; Indian forests, kmportance of forests, hazards of deforestation, afforestation. Environmental pollution, sources, major pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control, pollution due to nuclear fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise pollution; sources and effects.
Multicellularity : Structure and Function Plant Life
Form and function. Tissue system in flowering plants, meristematic and permanent. Minerals nutrition-essential elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake to minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and water in plants, Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and photophosphoryliation, photorespiration. Transpiration and exchange of gases. Stomatal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants; water relations in plant cells, water potential. Reproduction and development in Angiosperms plants; asexual and sexual. Structure and functions of flower: development of male and female gemetophytes in angiosperms, pollination, fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentation and organ formation. Plant hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of growth and movement in plants.
Multicellularity : Structure of Function Animal Life
Animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition; organs of digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins: nutritional imbalances and deficiency disease. Gas exchange and transport : Pulmonry gas exchange and organs involved, transport of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media. Circulation : closed and open vascular systems, structure and pumping action of heat, arterial blood pressure, lymph. Excretion and osomoregulation. Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, urecotelism, urecotelism, excertion of water and urea with special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lungs in excretion. Hormonal coordination; hormones of mammals, role of hormones as messengers and regulators. Nervous coordination : central autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, receptors, effectors, reflex action, basic physiology of special senses, integrative control by neuroendocrinal systems. Locomotion; joints, muscle movements, types of skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic aspects of human skelton. Reproduction : human reproduction. Female reproductive cycle. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs layers). Growth, repair and ageing.
Heredity and variation : Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and idea of factors. Mendel’s law of inheritance. Genes : Packaging of heredity material in prokaryetes-bacterial chromosome; plasmid and eukaryote chromosomes. Extranuclear genes, viral genes. Linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation, Gene expression; genetic code, transcription, gene regulation. Molecular basis of differentiation.
Origin and Evolution of Life
Origin of life : Living and non-living, chemical evolution, organic evolution; Oparin ideas, Miller â€“ Urey experiments. Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution : fossilrecords including geological time scale, Morphological evidence â€“ Hemology, vestigial organs, embryological similarities and biogeographical evidence.
Darwin’s two major contributions. Common origin of living organisms and recombination as sources of variability, selection acts upon variation, adaptation (Ledergerg’s replica plating experiment for indirect select of bacterial mutants). Reproductive isolation, sepeciation. Role of selection change of drift in determining composition of population. Selected examples : industrial melanism; drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disease. Human evolution : Palcontological evidence, man’s place among mammals. Brief idea of Dryopithecus, Australopithecus, home erectus, H. neadnderthlensis, Cromagnon man and sapiens. Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with chromosomes of nonhuman primates to indicate common origin ; Cultural vs. biological evolution.
Applications of Biology
Introduction, Role of Biology in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of plant-a historical account, improvement of crop plant; Principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers and economic and ecological aspects.
Use of pesticides : advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Underutillized crops with potential uses of oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder, New ceops-Leucaena (Subabul), Jojaba, Guayule, winged bean, etc. Biofertilisers-green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic, non symbiotic). Applications of tissue culture and genetic engineering in crops. Demestication and introduction of animals. Livestock, poultry, fisheries (fresh water, marine, aquaculture). Improvement of animals : principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and Iac). Bioenergy-biomass, wood (combustion, gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes, gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons for producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocellulose, Biotechnology, a brief historical account-manufacture of cheese. Youghurt, alcohol, alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic acids, anti-biotics, steroids, dextrin’s, Scalling up laboratory findings to Industrial production. Production in insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases including STD and diseases spread through â€˜blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS, etc) Immune response, vaccines and antis era. Allergies and Inflammations. Inherited diseases and dysfunctions, sex â€“ linked diseases, genetic incompatibilities, and genetic counselling. Cancer-major types., causes, diagnosis and treatment. Tissue and organ transplantation. Community health services and measures. Blood banks, Mental health, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction-physiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical engineering â€“ spare parts for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human population related diseases. Human population growth problems and control, inequality between sexes â€“ control measures; test â€“ tube babies amniocentesis. Future of Biology
Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic
Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, Sl unit, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures, compounds and elements and purification). Law of chemical combination and Dalton’s Atomic theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical formulae). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations using chemical equations).
Elements, their Occurrence and extraction
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology, Elements in sea, extraction of metals (metallurgical process, production of concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification). Mineral wealth of India. Qualitatives test of metals.
State of Matter
Gaseous state ( measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogdro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressure.
The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface Tension, Viscosity).
Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron, nuclear model of the atom). Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr’s model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau principle).
Chemical Families Periodic Properties
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types of elements (Representative elements-s & p block elements, inner transition elements-d-block elements, inner transition elements-f-block elements). Periodic trends in properties. (Ionization energy, electron, affinity, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond ( Hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds). Coordinate covalent bond ( Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state (Ionic, molecules and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Carbon and Compounds
Elemental carbon, Carbon compounds, Inorganic compounds of carbon ( Oxides of carbon, halides, carbides). Organic compounds, Nomenclature of organic compounds (Hydrocarbons, functional groups). Some common organic compounds (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Halides, Acids, nitro compounds and Amines).
Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy (Internal energy, Enthalpy, Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy changes in a reaction. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts). Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of combustion, heat of fusion and vapourization). Source of energy (Conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sum as the primary source). What decides the direction of a spomntaneous change in chemical reaction ? (an elementary idea of free energy change). Why energy crisis is energy is conserved in nature ?
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes). Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems). Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle). Equilibria involving ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (nearest equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers (reles for assigning oxidation number, redox reaction sin terms of oxidation number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Rates of Chemical Reactions
Rates of reaction. Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysis). Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions ?
Chemistry of Non-metals
(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) Hydrogen (position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses). Oxygen (occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple oxids; ozone). Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, softening, hydrogen peroxides, preparation, properties, structure and uses) Nitrogen (Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen â€“ Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid â€“ preparation, properties and uses).
Chemistry of Non-metals II
(Boron, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, halogens and the noble gases).Boron (Occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds).Silicon (occurrence , preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertilizers).Sulphur (occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides: Sulphuric acid â€“ preparation properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate). Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens). Nobel gases (discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses).
Chemistry of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compound â€“ Nacl, ). Magnesium and calcium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important compound – plaster of paris). Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compound – alums). Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Chemistry of Heavier Metals
Iron (occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper, silver, and gold (occurrence and extractions properties and uses, compound-sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography). Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compound-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates). Tin and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties, uses, compounds â€“ oxides, sulphades, halides).
Structure and Shape (s) of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation).Stereo Isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical relation, racenic mixture).Alkenes (isomerism including cis-trans).Alkynes.Arenes (structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenas).
Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons
Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives).
Laboratory preparation of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and carboxylic acids).
Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols, alkyl halides).
Laboratory preparation of aikynes (preparation from calcium carbide and accetylene).
Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting points, solubility and density)
Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition, substitution and miscellaneous reactions).
Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography) Qualitative analysis (analysis of nitrogen sulphur, phosphorus and halogens). Qualitative analysis (estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen). Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer’s method, volumetric method). Calculation of empirical formula and molecular formula. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure elucidation.
The Molecules of Life
The cell. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides). Protein (amino acids, peptide bond, structured of proteins, tertiary structure of proteins and denaturation, enzymes). Nuclei acids (structure, the double helix, biological function of nucleic acid, viruses). Lipids.
Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
Atoms; dual nature of matter and radiation. The Uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Electronic configuration of atoms. Molecules: Molecular orbital method. Hybridisation, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
The Solid State
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed structures. Ionic-radii, Silicates (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids (point defects only). Properties of solids. Amorphous solids. The Gaseous state Ideal gas equation â€“ Kinetic theory (fundamentals only).
Types of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concept â€“ stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
First law of thermodynamics: Internal energy, Enthalphy, application of first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for useful work. Third law of thermosynamics.
Electrolytic conduction. Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force. Gibb’s free energy and cell potential. Electrode potential and Electrolysis. Primary cells including fuel cell. Corrosion.
Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constant. Order of reaction and concentration. (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependance of rate constant-Fast reactions (only elementary ideal). Mechanism of reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group I
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds).Nomenclature of compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups : haloalkanes, haloarenes; alcohols and phenols. Correlation of physical properties and uses. Preparation, properties and uses of following; Polyhalogen compounds : Chloroform, Idoform. Polhydric compounds. Ethane 1,–diol; Propene â€“ 1,2,3 triol. Structure and reactivity-(a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c) Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, (d) Types of organic reaction.
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group-II
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones , carboxylic acids and their derivatives).
Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives. (acyl halides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters). General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their structures, chemical properties and uses. (Note : Specific compounds should not be stressed for the purpose of evaluation)
Organic Chemistry Based on Functional Group III
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitro compounds and amines)
(Nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides; nitro compounds and amines and their methods of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure, chemical reactions and uses.
Chemistry of Representative Elements
Periodic properties Trends in groups (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and Sulphates solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following :
Group 1 element Alkali metals Group 2 elements-Alkaline earth metals Group 13 elements-Boron family Group 14 elements-Carbon family Group 15 elements-Nitrogen family Group 16 elements-Oxygen family Group 17 elements-Halogen family Group 18 elements- Nobel gases and Hydrogen.
Transition Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration : General characteristic properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General properties of second and third row transition elements (Group wise discussion). Inner transition elements: General discussion and special reference to oxidation state and Lanthanide contraction.
Coordination Chemistry and Organo Metallics.
Coordination compounds. Nomenclature : Isomerism in coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds; Stability of coordination compounds; application of coordination compounds; Compounds containing metal-carbon bond; Application of organometallics.
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances. Nuclear structure and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion : Isotopes and their uses; Radio carbon-dating; Synthetic elements.
Synthetic and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important uses of the following : Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, terylene. Environmental pollution â€“ pollutant â€“ services â€“ check and alternatives.
Surfaces : Adsorption, Colloids â€“ (Preparation and general properties). Emulsions, Micelles. Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides. Amino Acid and Peptides â€“ Structure and classification. Proteins and Enzymes â€“ Structure of proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids â€“ DNA and RNA. Biological functions of Nucleic acids â€“ Protein synthesis and replication. Lipids â€“ Structure, membranes and their functions.
Chemistry of Biological Process
Carbohydrates and their Metabolism, Hemoglobin blood and respiration; Immune system; Vitamins and hormones. Simple idea of chemical evolution.
Chemistry in Action
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines, Rocket propellants. (Structural formulae non â€“ evaluative)
Introduction and Measurement
What is Physics? Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society and technology, Need for measurement, units for measurement, systems of units â€“ SI : fundamental and derived units. Dimensions and their applications. Others of magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement â€“ random and instrumental errors, Significant figures and rounding off, Graphs, Trignometric functions, simple indeas of difference and integration.
Description of Motion in One Dimension
Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight line, unit and direction for time and position measurement. Uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, instantaneous velocity. Unifomaly acceleratd motion, its velocity â€“ time graph, position-time graph and formulae. General relation between position and velocity, application accelerated motion, Acceleration in general one â€“ dimensional motion.
Description of Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
Vectors and scalars, vectors in two dimensions, general â€“ vectors, vector addition and multiplication by a real number zero â€“ vector and its properties. Resolution of a vector in place, rectangular components. Scalar and Vector Products. Motion in two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration â€“ projectile motion, general relation among position â€“ velocity â€“ acceleratin for motion in a plane â€“ uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space (elementary ideas).
Laws of Motion
Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, some kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum, rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames (elementary ideas).
Work., Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, kinetic energy, power, Elastic collision in one and two dimensions, Potential energy, gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic energy, potential energy of a spring. Different forms of energy, mass energy equivalence, conservation of energy.
Centre of mass of a two â€“ particle system, momentum conservation and center of mass motion. Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only, torque, angular momentum and its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of angular momentum, examples of circular motion ( car on a level circular road, car on banked road, pendulum swinging in a vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its â€“ physical significance, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements only).
Acceleration due to gravity, one dimensional motion under gravity, two-dimensional motion under gravity. Universal law of gravitation, inertia and gravitational mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, orbital velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, gravitational potential, escape velocity.
Head and Thermodynamics
Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal gas, relation between them, first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics state, equation of state and isothermals, pressure â€“ temperature phase diagram. Thermodynamic processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot cycle, second law of thermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines : Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity, black body radiation, Wien’s law, Stefan’s Law, Newton’s law of cooling.
Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion. Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M., Simple pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, reasonance and damped oscillations.
Wave motion, speed of wave motion, principle of super-positions, reflection of waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only) standing waves and normal modes and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect, Musical scale, acoustics of building.
Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, elementary unit, Coulomb’s law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge, di-pole field and dipoles’ behaviour in an uniform (2-dimensional) electric field, flux, Gauss’s law in simple geometrics, Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectric (concept only), Capacitance (parallel plate), series and parallel, energy of a capacitor, high voltage generators, atmospheric electricity.
Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f. (cells : simple, secondary, chargeable), electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistances. Ohm’s law. Kirchoffs law, resistances in series and parallel, series and parallel circuits, Wheatstone’s bridge, measurement of voltages and currents, potentiometer.
Thermal and Chemical Effects of Currents
Electric power, heating effects of current, chemical effects and law of electrolysis, simple concept of thermoelectricity, thermocouple.
Magnetic Effect of Currents
Oersted’s observation Biot-Savart’s law (magnetic field due to a current element), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple idea), forces and torques on currents in magnetic field, forces between two currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.
Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), lines of force, torque on a magnet in a magnetic field, earth’s magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer, para, dia and ferromagnetism (simple idea).
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Induced e.m.f., Faraday’s Law, Lenz’s Law, Induction, self and mutual inductance, alternating currents, impedance and reactance, power in a.c., electrical machines and devices (transformer, induction coil, generator, simple motors, choke and starter).
Electromagnetic Waves (Qualitative Treatment)
Electromagnetic oscillations, some history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell, Hertz, Bose, Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red, optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, beta and gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses and propagation, properties of atmosphere w.r.t various parts of electromagnetic spectrum.
Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, optical fiber, curved mirrors, lenses, mirror and lens formulae, Dispersion by a prism, spectrometer and spectra-absorption and emmission; scattering, rainbow. Magnification and resolving power, telescope (astronomical), microscope.
Electrons and Photons
Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases, particle nature of light, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, photocells.
Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei
Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum, composition of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, size of nucleus, radioactivity, mass energy nuclear fission and fusion, nuclear holo-caust.
Solids and Semiconductor Devices
Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid crystal (concepts only)
Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, PN Junction, diodes, Junction transistor, diode as rectifier, transistor as an amplifier and oscillator, logicgates and combination of gates.