CIVIL ENGINEERING (DIPLOMA COURSE) Paper-II
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Time : 3 Hrs. Max. Marks-150
1. Introduction: Definition ofirrigation, necessity of irrigation, history ofdevelopment ofirrigation in india, types of irrigation in india. sources of irrigation water.
2. Rain fall & run·offi Definition of rainfall & run-off, catchment area, dicken’s & ryve’s formula, types of rain gauges-automatic & non- automatic, stream guaging.
3. Water requirement of crops: Definition of crop season, duty, delta and base period, their relationship, irrigation methods & efficiencies, gross command area, culturable command area, intensity of irrigation, irrigable area, water requirement of crops-kharif and rabi, preparation of water supply schedules for kharifand rabi.
4. Lift irrigation: Types of walls, shallow & deep well, aquifer, types, ground water flow. construction of open wells and tube wells yield of an open/tube well and problems, methods of lifting water, manual and mechanical devices, use of wind mills, lift canals their design, construction and water scheduling.
5. Flow irrigation: Irrigation canals, perrinial irrigation. different parts of irrigation canals and their functions, sketches of different canal cross sections, classification of canals according to their alignment. design of irrigation canals, chezy’s formula, mannings formula, kennedy`s and lacey’s sift theory and equations, comparison of above two silt theory, equations, critical velocity ratio, use of garrets and lacey`s charts, various types of canal lining, advantage & disadvantages.
6.Canal head works: Definition, object, general layout functions ofdifferent parts, difference between weir and barrage.
7. Regulatory works: Functions and explanation of terms used cross and head regulators, falls,energy dissipates. outlets—different types, escapes.
8. Cross drainage works functions and necessity of the following types: Aqueduct, syphon, superpassage, level crossing, inlet outlet. constructional details of the above.
9. Dams: earthen dams-types, causes of failure, classification into masonry & concrete dams, labelled cross section of goavity dam, spiliways.
1O. Water logging and drainage: Definition, causes and effects, detection, prevention and remedies, surface and sub—surface drains and their layout, field drainage, salinity controlling measures, ground water recharging measures.
11. Flood protection: Estimation of flood discharges, systems of flood warning, river behaviour, training works and control, marginal embankments, their design, causes of failure, spurs & dykes, attracting & repelling types, nonstructural flood management, relief & rehabilitation measures.
12. Irrigation management:
Checking of irrigated, areas. raising water charges, bills, compensation for crop damages, penalties for unauthorised use of irrigation water, procedure for imposition of panel rates. Canal law and its application, formation of water users. associations and their participation in irrigation management, command area development.
13. Major irrigation projects in India.
14. Fluid machanics:
(a) Properties of fluids. hydrostatic pressure of various types of surfaces. measurement of pressure, kinematics of fluid flow.
(b) Dynamics of fluid flow, bernouli”s theorem, measurement of flow, pilot tube, piezometer, orifices venturimeter, current meter.
(c) Flow through pipes-losses and pipe network, water hammer, reynold’s number.
(d) Flow through open channels-hydolic gredients, equation for uniform flow, chezy`s and manning formula most economical section.
(e) Measurement of discharges by (i) wairs and (ii) notch.
(f) Hydraulic machines-pumps (Reciprocating and Centifugal), Turbines (Implulse & Reaction).