d AND f-BLOCK ELEMENTS
General Characteristics of d-block elements. Occurrence and principles of extraction: Copper, Silver and Zinc. Preparation, properties of 3 , 4 AgNO CuSO and 7 2 2 O Cr K and 4 KMnO .
Lanthanides-Introduction, oxidation state-Chemical reactivity, Lanthanide contraction, uses and brief
comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides. Nuclear energy, Nuclear fission and fusion-Radio carbon dating – Nuclear reaction in sun – Uses of radioactive Isotopes.
Introduction – Terminology in coordination chemistry – IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds – Isomerism in coordination compounds – structural isomerism – Geometrical isomerism in 4-coordinate, 6-coordinate complexes – Theories on coordination compounds – Werner’s theory (brief) – Valence Bond theory – Uses of coordination compounds – Biocoordination compounds (Haemoglobin and chlorophyll).
Unit cell, X-Ray crystal structure – Types of ionic crystals – Imperfections in solids – Electrical Property – Amorphous solid (elementary ideas only).
I and II law of thermodynamics – Spontaneous and non spontaneous processes – entropy – Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and chemical equilibrium – Third law of thermodynamics.
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND CHEMICAL KINETICS
Applications of law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle. Rate expression and order of a reaction, zero order, first order and pseudo first order reaction – half life period, determination of rate constant/order of reaction Temperature dependence of rate constant – Arrhenius equation, activation energy.
Theory of electrical conductance – Theory of strong electrolytes – Faraday’s laws of electrolysis – Specific resistance, specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductance – Variation of conductance with dilution – Kohlraush’s law. Cells – Electrodes and electrode potentials – Construction of cell and EMF – Fuel cells – Corrosion and its preventions.
ALCOHOLS AND ETHERS
Nomenclature of alcohols – Classification of alcohols – General methods of preparation of primary alcohols – Properties – Methods of preparation of dihydric alcohols: Glycol – Properties – Uses – Methods of preparation of trihydric alcohols – Properties – uses – Aromatic alcohols – Preparation and properties of phenols and benzyl alcohol. Ethers – General methods of preparation of aliphatic ethers – properties – Uses – Aromatic ethers – Preparation of anisole – Reactions of anisole – Uses.
Nomenclature of carbonyl compounds – Comparison of aldehydes and ketones. General methods of preparation of aldehydes – Properties – Uses. Aromatic aldehydes – Preparation of benzaldehyde – Properties and Uses. Ketones – general methods of preparation of aliphatic ketones (acetone) – Properties – Uses. Aromatic ketones – preparation of acetophenone – Properties – Uses, preparation of benzophenone – Properties.
Nomenclature – Preparation of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids – formic acid – Properties – Uses. Monohydroxy mono carboxylic acids; Lactic acid – synthesis of lactic acid. Aliphatic dicarboxylic acids; Preparation of oxalic and succinic acid. Aromatic acids; Benzoic and Salicylic acid – Properties – uses. Derivatives of carboxylic acids; acetyl chloride ( COCl CH3 ) – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Preparation of acetamide, Properties – acetic anhydride – preparation, Properties. Preparation of esters – methyl acetate – Properties.
ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS
Aliphatic nitro compounds – Preparation of aliphatic nitroalkanes – Properties – Uses. Aromatic nitro compounds – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic nitro compounds. Amines; aliphatic amines – General methods of preparation – Properties – Distinction between 0 0 2 , 1 , and 0 3 amines. Aromatic amines – Synthesis of benzylamine – Properties – Aniline – Preparation – Properties – Uses. Distinction between aliphatic and aromatic amines. Aliphatic nitriles – Preparation – properties – Uses. Diazonium salts – Preparation of benzene diazoniumchloride properties.